Kumari Kandam- The Lost Continent(குமரிக்கண்டம்)

Lemuria

“Lemuria” in Tamil nationalist mysticist literature, connecting Madagascar, South India and Australia (covering most of the Indian Ocean). Mount Meru stretches southwards from Sri Lanka. The distance from Madagascar to Australia is about 4,200 miles

Kumari Kandam or Lemuria (Tamil:குமரிக்கண்டம்) is the name of a supposed sunken landmass referred to in existing ancient Tamil literature. It is said to have been located in the Indian Ocean, to the south of present-day Kanyakumari district at the southern tip of India.

References in Tamil literature

There are scattered references in Sangam literature, such as Kalittokai 104, to how the sea took the land of the Pandiyan kings, upon which they conquered new lands to replace those they had lost. There are also references to the rivers Pahruli and Kumari, that are said to have flowed in a now-submerged land. The Silappadhikaram, a 5th century epic, states that the “cruel sea” took the Pandiyan land that lay between the rivers Pahruli and the mountainous banks of the Kumari, to replace which the Pandiyan king conquered lands belonging to the Chola and Chera kings (Maturaikkandam, verses 17-22). Adiyarkkunallar, a 12th century commentator on the epic, explains this reference by saying that there was once a land to the south of the present-day Kanyakumari, which stretched for 700 kavatam from the Pahruli river in the north to the Kumari river in the south. As the modern equivalent of a kavatam is unknown, estimates of the size of the lost land vary from 1,400 miles (2,300 km) to 7,000 miles (11,000 km) in length, to others suggesting a total area of 6-7,000 square miles, or smaller still an area of just a few villages.

This land was divided into 49 nadu, or territories, which he names as seven coconut territories (elutenga natu), seven Madurai territories (elumaturai natu), seven old sandy territories (elumunpalai natu), seven new sandy territories (elupinpalai natu), seven mountain territories (elukunra natu), seven eastern coastal territories (elukunakarai natu) and seven dwarf-palm territories (elukurumpanai natu). All these lands, he says, together with the many-mountained land that began with KumariKollam, with forests and habitations, were submerged by the sea.Two of these Nadus or territories were supposedly parts of present-day Kollam and Kanyakumari districts.

None of these texts name the land “Kumari Kandam” or “Kumarinadu”, as is common today. The only similar pre-modern reference is to a “Kumari Kandam” (written குமரிகண்டம், rather than குமரிக்கண்டம் as the land is called in modern Tamil), which is named in the medieval Tamil text Kantapuranam either as being one of the nine continents, or one of the nine divisions of India and the only region not to be inhabited by barbarians. 19th and 20th Tamil revivalist movements, however, came to apply the name to the territories described in Adiyarkkunallar’s commentary to the Silappadhikaram. They also associated this territory with the references in the Tamil Sangams, and said that the fabled cities of southern Madurai and Kapatapuram where the first two Sangams were said to be held were located on Kumari Kandam.

In Tamil national mysticism

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Tamil nationalists came to identify Kumari Kandam with Lemuria, a hypothetical “lost continent” posited in the 19th century to account for discontinuities in biogeography. In these accounts, Kumari Kandam became the “cradle of civilization”, the origin of human languages in general and the Tamil language in particular. These ideas gained notability in Tamil academic literature over the first decades of the 20th century, and were popularized by the Tanittamil Iyakkam, notably by self-taught DravidologistDevaneya Pavanar, who held that all languages on earth were merely corrupted Tamil dialects.

R. Mathivanan, then Chief Editor of the Tamil Etymological Dictionary Project of the Government of Tamil Nadu, in 1991 claimed to have deciphered the still undeciphered Indus script as Tamil, following the methodology recommended by his teacher Devaneya Pavanar, presenting the following timeline (cited after Mahadevan 2002):

ca. 200,000 to 50,000 BC: evolution of “the Tamilian or Homo Dravida“,
ca. 200,000 to 100,000 BC: beginnings of the Tamil language
50,000 BC: Kumari Kandam civilisation
20,000 BC: A lost Tamil culture of the Easter Island which had an advanced civilisation
16,000 BC: Lemuria submerged
6087 BC: Second Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king
3031 BC: A Chera prince in his wanderings in the Solomon Island saw wild sugarcane and started cultivation in Kumari Kandam.
1780 BC: The Third Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king
7th century BC: Tolkappiyam (the earliest known extant Tamil grammar)

Mathivanan uses “Aryan Invasion” rhetoric to account for the fall of this civilization:

“After imbibing the mania of the Aryan culture of destroying the enemy and their habitats, the Dravidians developed a new avenging and destructive war approach. This induced them to ruin the forts and cities of their own brethren out of enmity”.

Mathivanan claims his interpretation of history is validated by the discovery of the “Jaffna seal”, a seal bearing a Tamil-Brahmi inscription assigned by its excavators to the 3rd century BC (but claimed by Mathivanan to date to 1600 BC).

Mathivanan’s theories are not considered mainstream by the contemporary university academy internationally.

Popular culture

  • Kumari Kandam appeared in the The Secret Saturdays episodes “The King of Kumari Kandam” and “The Atlas Pin.” This version is a city on the back of a giant sea serpent with its inhabitants all fish people.

Loss and imagination

Sumathi Ramaswamy’s book, The Lost Land of Lemuria: Fabulous Geographies, Catastrophic Histories (2004) is a theoretically sophisticated[citation needed] study of the Lemuria legends that widens the discussion beyond previous treatments[citation needed], looking at Lemuria narratives from nineteenth-century Victorian-era science to Euro-American occultism, colonial, and post colonial India. Ramaswamy discusses particularly how cultures process the experience of loss.


Professor Karsten M. Storetvedt, the chair in geomagnetism at the University of Bergen, Norway, and an author of the Global Wrench Theory (GWT), says that the equator regions have always been most prone to natural catastrophes like earthquakes and volcano eruptions. A part of explanation is that planet rotation and especially the difference in rotation speed between poles and equator force earth mantel to strain and to break more easily where the strain is strongest, that is at the equator regions. These tectonic processes played important role in the disappearance of the ancient continent known as Lemuria to western scholars. Sri Lanka together with India, Indonesia and Malaysia were a part of this continent. Many islands in the Pacific and Indian oceans are remnants of this continent that in ancient time covered the whole area of today’s ocean. Storetvedt, who seems to reject the theory of continental drift and plate tectonics, says that descriptions of cataclysms in early literature when land suddenly went underwater are logical. But they should be proven to be scientific facts. This can be done with the help of sea-floor analysis that is possible to carry out. Modern theories find supportive evidences both in ancient literature and language history.
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31 Comments

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31 responses to “Kumari Kandam- The Lost Continent(குமரிக்கண்டம்)

  1. Pingback: 11000Years Old Man Made Structure Found in Indian Sea | தமிழ் வரலாறு

  2. வீரராசன்

    Kumari Kandam or Lemuria (குமரிக்கண்டம்) is the name of a supposed sunken landmass referred to in existing ancient Tamil literature. It is said to have been located in the Indian Ocean, to the south of present-day Kanyakumari district at the southern tip of India.

  3. Kumari Kandam or Lemuria (குமரிக்கண்டம்) is the name of a supposed sunken landmass referred to in existing ancient Tamil literature. It is said to have been located in the Indian Ocean, to the south of present-day Kanyakumari district at the southern tip of India.

  4. thiruppathy

    hi my name is Thiruppathy and I am from Malaysia I totaly agry with you but I am a bit upset that in Malaysai, Indians do not know wh we are so I and my friends have joined forces in writing a book but since we are just 14 we are lack of contents although we have searched in the internet there are lot of unclear informations and a lot of fake, so I hope you would help us out here pls do not only for us but for OUR TAMILANS if there is any information you could contribute pls e mail to me in thiruppathyks@gmail.com
    thank you

  5. Niranjan

    hi , iam niranjan from chennai…………… tamil people went to malasiya during the regime of raja raja chola……..for further details abt origin of tamil, pls contact adolfhitler99niru@gmail.com

  6. Rimzana

    Can someone giv me the history of tamil language.

  7. hai guys! i am rajesh, very intresting for tamil history. realy i blieve it.

  8. Sanjay ChandraMohan

    Lemuria is a word that is spoken of more and more in this day and time and much information is coming forth from various sources about Lemuria. About 40-50,000 years ago, there existed a continent called Lemuria, the mountaintops of which still remain to this day as the Hawaiian Islands.

    This was a vast continent that encompassed the lands we currently know as Japan as well as part of China and Australia as well as the west coast of America and a part of South America – basically most of what is now known as the Pacific Ocean
    .

  9. Arulkumar

    Dear writers my name is Arul…… I want to read our history in our mother tongue tamil can anyone send me books in PDF formats to my mail

    arul_prabu89@yahoo.com

  10. Whats up! I simply wish to give a huge thumbs up
    for the nice information you’ve here on this post. I will
    be coming back to your blog for more soon.

  11. Thanks a whole lot to get expressing this particular wonderful people today you actually acknowledge what you’re really speaking about! Saved. Make sure you additionally check out this site =). We may possess a weblink alternate agreement in between us

  12. hai friends iam very excited while reading the history of kumari kandam.I think only very few people know this history of the lost continent.please share the massage of kumari kandam with ur friends i would also do that from this moment

  13. Ramesh.P

    tamil varalaru of lemuria (kumarikandam) will be given pleasure to everybody if given in Tamil

  14. Jeevarathinam.R.S

    Hi being a tamilian,I am proud enough.Every tamilian must read this.Interested to know more…

  15. m.sabapathy

    oi want more information

  16. The bitter truth

    This where we went wrong. Our ancestors had a great imaginary mind and they started to write literature and books by imagination. But, unfortunately the later generations start to believe this imagine stories as true and start to speak the pride of ancestors. If you look at the total tamil population and their origin in the world you can easily understand this, whether these stories are true. Tamils origin is only south india and northern sri lanka. So, we all should keep this in mind .We are a very small community compared to others in the world.

    I agree that there are brilliant mathematician and many great persons come out from here. that doesn’t imply we rule the world. Don’t get temper by looking at this. I want to say the bitter truth to you all.

  17. dinesh chandrasekar

    Hi bitter truth…..
    u speaking nasty lies only….
    just go search the gene research of where the man was came from…..
    u may become very bitter after tat……
    shall i know wer u frm….???

  18. RAGUL

    TAMIL YEPAVUM ALIYADHU ,,ALIKKAVUM MUDIYADHU

  19. Ennudaiya uru entaiku chelippaga erukku atha yaralum matta mudiyathu ethu kadaul kuduthavaram eraiva umaku nantry

  20. NG.Sandrasagar Hutan Melintang, Perak, Malaysia.

    T-A-M-I-L- TAMIL – ALEGHANA – MULIYAGUM – INTHA – LOGATHIL.

  21. Really a nice article ,every tamil people should know this .

  22. I will Try to promote this Article //Should i admin

  23. Tamillennaga pirentha pirappu ore muraithan ungaleke kidaitha vaippu vaarem, athai asinga padathathir, Tamillil thalvaga pirarai thaltividathey talai vanangi tamillai nade ( TAMIL – ATHI – MOLI – IDEM – LEMURAI )

  24. GANESH SHANMUGAM

    kumari kandam is the history of our (tamilans) own .but why our government not respect that culture . am ready to collect our culture … dear frd you are interest ….???

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